Formula 1 2015: la guida con le nuove regole

Ancora qualche giorno e inizierà il Campinato di Formula 1 2015. Tante le novità con tecnici e piloti che cambiano casacca o finiscono in altri campionati. Ma sotto tutto rimane una base, che è l’artefice di tanti cambiamenti. Parliamo del regolamento FIA. Ogni anno ci sono delle piccole modifiche. La versione 2015 non è altro che una modifica di quello dell’anno passato, che di fatti a rivoluzionato la classe regina del motor sport. Grazie al sito F1grandprix pubblichiamo una piccola guida sul regolamento FIA 2015

Nuove Penalità
In aggiunta alla penalità di cinque secondi da potere scontare prima del pit stop, quest’anno i commissari potranno assegnare una nuova penalità di dieci secondi da poter scontare allo stesso modo.

The stewards may impose any one of the penalties below on any driver involved in an Incident:
a) A five second time penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane, stop at his pit for at least five seconds and then re-join the race. The relevant driver may however elect not to stop, provided he carries out no further pit stop before the end of the race. In such cases five seconds will be added to the elapsed race time of the driver concerned.
b) A ten second time penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane, stop at his pit for at least ten seconds and then re-join the race. The relevant driver may however elect not to stop, provided he carries out no further pit stop before the end of the race. In such cases ten seconds will be added to the elapsed race time of the driver concerned.
c) A drive-through penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane and re-join the race without stopping.
d) A ten second time penalty. The driver must enter the pit lane, stop at his pit for at least ten seconds and then re-join the race. [Art. 16.3]

Niente più doppi punti
La regola del doppio punteggio all’ultima gara rimarrà per fortuna un caso isolato e fortunatamente non determinante per l’assegnazione del titolo mondiale. In questa stagione tutte le gare assegneranno un egual numero di punti al vincitore.

Power Unit
Ogni pilota avrà a disposizione durante tutta la stagione quattro power unit, una in meno dello scorso anno. Tuttavia questo numero salirà a cinque se il calendario supererà le venti gare in campionato.
La power unit è ufficialmente divisa in sei componenti: il motore, l’MGU-K, l’MGU-H, l’energy store (ES), il turbo e l’elettronica (CE). Ogni pilota ha a disposizione quattro di ognuna di queste parti. Una volta che si dovesse eccedere nella quinta o più parti utilizzate, la penalità saranno assegnate in posizioni sulla griglia di partenza, alternando dieci e cinque posizioni man mano.
A differenza della scorsa stagione le penalità che non saranno possibili scontare in griglia non scaleranno più alla gara successiva, ma verranno tramutate in penalità di tempo in gara seguendo lo schema

1-5 posizioni: cinque secondi di penalità
6-10 posizioni: un drive trough
11-20 posizioni: dieci secondi di stop and go
più di 20 posizioni: una penalità di tempo

a) Unless he drives for more than one team (see 28.4(d) below), each driver may use no more than four power units during a Championship season. This number will be increased to five if the number of Events in the Championship, as originally scheduled, exceeds 20. If this is the case, the numbers in b) and c) below will be amended accordingly.
b) For the purposes of this Article 28.4 the power unit will be deemed to comprise six separate elements, the engine (ICE), the motor generator unit-kinetic (MGU-K), the motor generator unit-heat (MGU-H), the energy store (ES), turbocharger (TC) and control electronics (CE). Each driver will therefore be permitted to use four of each of the above six components during a Championship season and any combination of them may be fitted to a car at any one time.
c) Should a driver use more than four of any one of the elements during a Championship season, a grid place penalty will be imposed upon him at the first Event during which each additional element is used. Penalties will be applied according to the following table and will be cumulative :  The first time a 5th of any of the  Ten grid place penalty.  elements is used.  The first time a 5th of any of the Five grid place penalty.  remaining elements is used.  The first time a 6th of any of the Ten grid place penalty.  elements is used.  The first time a 6th of any of the Five grid place penalty.  remaining elements is used, and so on.   A power unit or any of the six components will be deemed to have been used once the car’s timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.  If a grid place penalty is imposed, and the driver’s grid position is such that the full penalty cannot be applied, the remainder of the penalty will be applied in the form of a time penalty during the race according to the following scale :  1 to 5 grid places untaken A penalty under Article 16.3(a) will be applied.  6 to 10 grid places untaken A penalty under Article 16.3(b) will be applied.  11 to 20 grid places untaken A penalty under Article 16.3(c) will be applied.  More than 20 grid places untaken A penalty under Article 16.3(d) will be applied.
d) If a driver is replaced at any time during the Championship season his replacement will be deemed to be the original driver for the purposes of assessing power unit usage.
e) After consultation with the relevant power unit supplier the FIA will attach seals to each of the relevant components within the power unit prior to them being used for the first time at an Event in order to ensure that no significant moving parts can be rebuilt or replaced.   Within two hours of the end of the post race parc fermé exhaust blanking plates (with one 10mm diameter inspection hole per cylinder) and further seals will be applied to all used power unit components in order to ensure that they cannot be run or dismantled between Events.   Upon request to the FIA these additional seals will be removed after the start of initial scrutineering at the next Event at which the power units are required. All such power units must remain within the team’s designated garage area when not fitted to a car and may not be started at any time during an Event other than when fitted to a car eligible to participate in the Event.
f) If any of the FIA seals are damaged or removed from the relevant components within the power unit after they have been used for the first time those parts may not be used again unless they were removed under FIA supervision. [Art. 28.4]

Niente ripartenze da fermi
La procedura di ripartenza dopo l’entrata della Safety Car rimarrà uguale agli scorsi anni.

When the clerk of the course decides it is safe to call in the safety car the message “SAFETY CAR IN THIS LAP” will be displayed on the official messaging system and the car’s orange lights will be extinguished. This will be the signal to the teams and drivers that it will be entering the pit lane at the end of that lap.
At this point the first car in line behind the safety car may dictate the pace and, if necessary, fall more than ten car lengths behind it.
In order to avoid the likelihood of accidents before the safety car returns to the pits, from the point at which the lights on the car are turned out drivers must proceed at a pace which involves no erratic acceleration or braking nor any other manoeuvre which is likely to endanger other drivers or impede the restart.
As the safety car is approaching the pit entry the yellow flags and SC boards will be withdrawn and, other than on the last lap of the race, replaced by waved green flags with green lights at the Line. These will be displayed until the last car crosses the Line. [Art.40.13]

Virtual Safety Car
La Fia ha deciso di adottare questo innovativo metodo per garantire la sicurezza in limitati tratti del circuito senza dovere per forza impiegare la Safety Car vera e propria.
Quando si avrà una situazione di pericolo verrà comunicato a tutti i team “VSC DEPLOYED” e sui pannelli luminosi nel settore interessato comparirà la scritta VSC. In quel settore i piloti dovranno procedere come se fossero dietro la Safety Car, non potranno sorpassare e saranno soggetti a penalizzazioni in caso infrangessero queste regole o procedessero a velocità troppo elevata rischiando di mettere in pericolo gli altri piloti o il personale di servizio.

The VSC procedure may be initiated to neutralise a race upon the order of the clerk of the course.  It will normally be used when double waved yellow flags are needed on any section of track and competitors or officials may be in danger, but the circumstances are not such as to warrant use of the safety car itself. [Art. 41.1]
When the order is given to initiate the VSC procedure a message “VSC DEPLOYED” will be displayed on the official messaging system and all FIA light panels will display “VSC”. [Art. 41.2]
No car may be driven unnecessarily slowly, erratically or in a manner which could be deemed potentially dangerous to other drivers or any other person at any time whilst the VSC procedure is in use. This will apply whether any such car is being driven on the track, the pit entry or the pit lane. [Art 41.3]
No car may enter the pits whilst the VSC procedure is in use unless it is for the purpose of changing tyres. [Art. 41.4]
All competing cars must reduce speed and stay above the minimum time set by the FIA ECU at least once in each marshalling sector (a marshalling sector is defined as the section of track between each of the FIA light panels). All cars must also be above this minimum time when the FIA light panels change to green (see 41.7 below).  The stewards may impose either of the penalties under Article 16.3a), b), c) or d) on any driver who fails to stay above the minimum time as required by the above. [Art. 41.5]
With the exception of the cases listed under a) to d) below, no driver may overtake another car on the track whilst the VSC procedure is in use.  The exceptions are :
a) When entering the pits a driver may pass another car remaining on the track after he has reached the first safety car line.
b) When leaving the pits a driver may overtake, or be overtaken by, another car on the track before he reaches the second safety car line.
c) Whilst in the pit entry, pit lane or pit exit a driver may overtake another car which is also in one of these three areas.
d) If any car slows with an obvious problem.
[Art. 41.6]
When the clerk of the course decides it is safe to end the VSC procedure the message “VSC ENDING” will be displayed on the official messaging system and, at any time between 10 and 15 seconds later, “VSC” on the FIA light panels will change to green and drivers may continue racing immediately. After 30 seconds the green lights will be extinguished. [Art. 41.7]
Each lap completed whist the VSC procedure is in use will be counted as a race lap. [Art. 41.8][Art. 41]

Gara Sospesa
In caso di sospensione temporanea di una corsa, le vetture non dovranno più posizionarsi in griglia di partenza come accadeva da parecchi anni, ma dovranno rientrare lentamente nella pit lane nell’ordine in cui arrivano, rimanendo nella corsia veloce e andando a formare una fila verso l’uscita della pit lane.

When the signal is given overtaking is forbidden, the pit exit will be closed and all cars must proceed slowly into the pit lane. The first car to arrive in the pit lane should proceed directly to the pit exit staying in the fast lane, all the other cars should form up in a line behind the first car. [Art. 42.2]

Procedura di Partenza
Qualunque pilota necessiterà dell’assistenza di un membro della sua squadra o se rimarrà qualche oggetto dello staff tecnico in griglia dopo l’avviso dei 15 secondi prima del giro di formazione, sarà costretto a partire dalla pit lane, senza possibilità di schierarsi in griglia.

When the one minute signal is shown, engines should be started and all team personnel must leave the grid by the time the 15 second signal is given taking all equipment with them.
If any team personnel or team equipment remain on the grid after the 15 second signal has been shown the driver of the car concerned must start the race from the pit lane as specified in Article 38.2. A penalty under Article 16.3(d) will be imposed on any driver who fails to start the race from the pit lane.  If any driver needs assistance after the 15 second signal he must raise his arm and, when the remainder of the cars able to do so have left the grid, marshals will be instructed to push the car into the pit lane.  In either of the above cases, marshals with yellow flags will stand beside any car (or cars) concerned to warn drivers behind. [Art. 38.5]

Uscita dopo il pit-stop
Se durante l’uscita da un pit-stop si dovvessero verificare incidenti causati o dal pilota o dai meccanici verrà applicata una penale di 10 secondi che scatteranno automaticamente, ovvero senza che i commissari ne debbano discutere.

“Team personnel are only allowed in the pit lane immediately before they are required to work on a car and must withdraw as soon as the work is complete.”
All team personnel carrying out any work on a car in the pit lane when the car is in its pit stop position during the qualifying practice session, or during a race pit stop, must be wearing head protection.” [Art. 23.11]
a) It is the responsibility of the competitor to release his car from his garage or pit stop position only when it is safe to do so. The competitor must also provide a means of clearly establishing, when being viewed from the front of the car, when that car was released.
b) If a car is deemed to have been released in an unsafe condition during any practice session, the stewards may drop the driver such number of grid positions as they consider appropriate.
c) If a car is deemed to have been released in an unsafe condition during a race a penalty under Article 16.3(d) will be imposed on the driver concerned.
d) An additional penalty will be imposed on any driver who, in the opinion of the stewards, continues to drive a car knowing it to have been released in an unsafe condition. In all of the above cases, a car will be deemed to have been released either when it has been driven out of its designated garage area (when leaving from the garage) or after it has completely cleared its pit stop position following a pit stop.”  [Art. 23.12]
“Under exceptional circumstances the race director may ask for the pit entry to be closed during the race for safety reasons. At such times drivers may only enter the pit lane in order for essential and entirely evident repairs to be carried out to the car.” [Art. 23.13]

Fase di sdoppiamento con Safety Car in pista
Come già visto nel 2014 le vetture doppiate potranno recuperare il giro di svantaggio, tuttavia la vettura di sicurezza non sarà costretta ad attendere che tali monoposto si portino in coda al gruppo. In questo modo potrà rientrare non appena l’ultimo dei doppiati l’avrà sorpassata ai box, facendo diminuire i tempi morti nel corso di una gara.

“If the clerk of the course considers it safe to do so, and the message “LAPPED CARS MAY NOW OVERTAKE” is shown on the official messaging system, any cars that have been lapped by the leader will be required to pass the cars on the lead lap and the safety car. This will only apply to cars that were lapped at the time they crossed the Line at the end of the lap during which they crossed the first Safety Car line for the second time after the safety car was deployed.
Having overtaken the cars on the lead lap and the safety car these cars should then proceed around the track at an appropriate speed, without overtaking, and make every effort to take up position at the back of the line of cars behind the safety car. Whilst they are overtaking, and in order to ensure this may be carried out safely, the cars on the lead lap must always stay on the racing line unless deviating from it is unavoidable. Unless the clerk of the course considers the presence of the safety car is still necessary, once the last lapped.” [Art. 40.12] 

Sistema di sospensioni della monoposto
Il sistema di sospensioni incaricato di reggere la vettura ed il suo carico in moto non potrà prevedere il FRIC (Front-and-Rear Interconnected Suspension). Ciò significa che le sospensioni sospese idraulicamente sono bandite ufficialmente da regolamento, pertanto lavoreranno singolarmente sui carichi applicati nella propria zona. Si ha quindi un minore aiuto da parte del corpo vettura che non si “adatta” ai G laterali ed altri tipi di carico.

“Cars must be fitted with sprung suspension. Any suspension system fitted to the front wheels must be so arranged that its response results only from changes in load applied to the front wheels. Any suspension system fitted to the rear wheels must be so arranged that its response results only from changes in load applied to the rear wheels.” [Art. 10.1]
“With the steering wheel fixed, the position of each wheel centre and the orientation of its rotation axis must be completely and uniquely defined by a function of its principally vertical suspension travel, save only for the effects of reasonable compliance which does not intentionally provide further degrees of freedom. Any powered device which is capable of altering the configuration or affecting the performance of any part of any suspension system is forbidden. No adjustment may be made to any suspension system while the car is in motion.” [Art. 10.2]

Il cambio
Se nel corso della stagione 2014 le scuderie erano abilitate a reimpostare una sola volta le marce, ora ciò non sarà più possibile.

“Each competitor must nominate the forward gear ratios (calculated from engine crankshaft to drive shafts) to be employed within their gearbox. These nominations must be declared to the FIA technical delegate at or before the first Event of the Championship.” [Art. 9.6 par.2]

Peso della monoposto
Rispetto all’anno scorso anche il peso della vettura è aumentato, passando ora a 702 kg a secco, cioè senza carburante. Il peso sarà ripartito così sulle ruote: 319 kg minimi all’anteriore, 376 kg minimi al posteriore a partire dalle fasi di qualificazione.

“The weight of the car, without fuel, must not be less than 702kg at all times during the Event. If, when required for checking, a car is not already fitted with dry-weather tyres, it will be weighed on a set of dry-weather tyres selected by the FIA technical delegate.” [Art. 4.1]
“The weight applied on the front and rear wheels must not be less than 319kg and 376kg respectively at all times during the qualifying practice session.
If, when required for checking, a car is not already fitted with dry-weather tyres, it will be weighed on a set of dry-weather tyres selected by the FIA technical delegate.” [Art. 4.2]

Disegno del frontale
Fortunatamente è stata rivista la sezione che regolamentava come i musetti dovevano essere costruiti per rispettare le norme imposte dalla FIA. Non sono più permessi musetti con biforcazioni e a formichiere.  Ora gli stessi sono più bassi ma con forme più gradevoli ed in linea con il baricentro delle monoposto.

Cockpit
I pannelli anti-intrusione in zylon (materiale introdotto in Formula Uno dal 2001 e resistente 1.6 volte più del kevlar) sono stati estesi su entrambi i lati del posto di guida. Gli stessi pannelli vengono estesi all’altezza della testa del pilota avvolgendolo.

Test durante la stagione
I test possibili a stagione in corso scendono da quattro a due, ognuno dei quali prevede due giornate. La metà di questi test inoltre dovrà vedere la discesa in pista obbligatoria di un giovane pilota. Ciò significa che soltanto due giorni saranno a disposizione dei piloti ufficiali di ogni scuderia. Le sedute di test si terranno rispettivamente a Barcellona il 12 e 13 maggio, al Red Bull Ring (Austria) il 22 e 23 giugno.

Scritto da: Silvano Lonardo

Silvano Lonardo
Appassionato di tecnologia, Formula 1, Lego e fotografia, mi occupo di progettare e sviluppare applicazioni web. Mi occupo di SEO, web marketing e Google Adwords. Blogger, insegnante di nuoto e papà.

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